The energy sector is made up of companies that produce, distribute and sell various types of energy, including fossil fuels, renewables and nuclear power. It’s an economic sector engaged in the production and supply of mainly gas and electricity. This involves energy producers, grid operators, energy traders and energy suppliers. The Rotterdam industrial area has several traditional oil refineries, various power stations and a number of biofuel plants. The energy transition is also increasingly taking shape in this sector. 

Companies and educational and research institutions work together to develop new technologies and put knowledge into practice. Innovation hubs and special programmes support the start-up of new companies or support other companies with growing their renewable energy activities. There are projects and innovations in blue hydrogen and carbon capture and storage (CCS), such as the Porthos project, and in green hydrogen at the Tweede Maasvlakte.